WH10.9.2 Analyze the causes of the Cold War, with the free world on one side and Soviet client states on the other, including competition for influence in such places as Egypt, the Congo, Vietnam, and Chile.
WH10.9.6 Understand how the forces of nationalism developed in the Middle East, how the Holocaust affected world opinion regarding the need for a Jewish state, and the significance and the effects of the location and establishment of Israel on world affairs.
WH10.10 Students analyze instances of nation-building in the contemporary world in at least two of the following regions or countries: the Middle East, Africa, Mexico and other parts of Latin America, and China.
WH10.10.1 Understand the challenges in the regions, including their geopolitical, cultural, military, and economic significance and the international relationships in which they are involved.
WH10.10.2 Describe the recent history of the regions, including political divisions and systems, key leaders, religious issues, natural features, resources, and population patterns.
WH10.10.3 Discuss the important trends in the regions today and whether they appear to serve the cause of individual freedom and democracy.

Chapter Overview
African states gained independence after World War II, but troubling conditions and authoritarian rule remained widespread. The Middle East has been the site of much conflict. The Islamic revival has affected the lives of people throughout the Middle East. The war on terrorism was launched in response to the attacks of September 11, 2001.

Section 1 Independence in Africa
Independent African states emerged after World War II with high hopes for democracy. Many African leaders advocated Western-style capitalism. Others called for an African form of socialism. Pan-Africanism was also a popular political idea, although African unity never became a political reality. Indeed, bloody wars between competing ethnic groups have been common. Economic challenges have included the need to import technology and manufactured goods, and to confront rapid population growth and drought. AIDS has become widespread. Despite attempts at democracy, one-party states and corrupt military regimes have been more typical. However, protest has brought some democratic change. The struggle to end apartheid resulted in the election of anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela as president of South Africa. Pockets of Western culture in Africa's cities contrast with the traditional life in rural areas. Tension between traditional and modern practices has been a dilemma for many Africans and is reflected in African art and literature.

Section 2 Conflict in the Middle East
In 1948, a United Nations resolution divided Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state. However, the problem of Palestinian refugees from that time has persisted. During the 1950s Gamal Abdel Nasser became the leader of the Pan-Arab movement. Nasser's confrontation with Israel led to the Six-Day War, in which Israel gained large pieces of territory and brought one million more Palestinians under its control. During the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, oil price hikes led to economic problems in Europe and the United States. The intifada, a popular Palestinian uprising, led to negotiations on Palestinian autonomy, although progress has been slow. A revolution in Iran ended American ties with a close ally and led to an Islamic republic ruled by Islamic law. Iran and Iraq fought a brutal war. Iraqi president Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait but was forced to withdraw after an American-led force organized to free Kuwait.

Section 3 The Challenge of Terrorism
Death and destruction have resulted from the terrorist acts of Islamic militants who want to defeat pro-Western governments in the Middle East and establish their idea of a pure Islamic state. These terrorists kill civilians, take hostages, and hijack planes to advance their goals. Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States and its allies attacked al-Qaeda terrorists in Afghanistan. The United States is also fighting the war on terror on the home front. In October 2001, Congress passed the Patriot Act, which included loosened restrictions on law enforcement searches. Critics of the bill claim that the bill tramples on a citizen's constitutional rights. In March 2003, a U.S.-led coalition attacked Iraq, believing that it possessed weapons of mass destruction; when none were found, many questioned the decision to begin the war. However, the war did result in the capture of Iraq's brutal dictator, Saddam Hussein, and free elections for the Iraqis. Violence and unrest are continuing problems in the region.


Vocabulary Define: significant, apartheid, Pan-Africanism, arbitrary.
People Identify: Kwame Nkrumah, Nelson Mandela, Jomo Kenyatta, Desmond Tutu, Chinua Achebe.

DIRECTIONS: Complete the outline below as you read Section 1.

I. After World War II, Europeans realized XXXXX rule in Africa would have to end.
A. The Gold Coast, or , was the first former British colony to gain independence.

B. XXXXX new African nations emerged in 1960.

C. Political activity on the part of blacks in XXXXX began in 1912.
1. By the 1950s, South African whites had strengthened XXXXX laws.
2. The white government brutally XXXXX black demonstrators.

II. Most leaders of newly independent African states had been educated in XXXXX or the XXXXX .
A. Some African leaders believed in XXXXX—the unity of all black Africans regardless of national boundaries.
B. Most African nations still relied on the export of a XXXXX crop or resource.
C. XXXXX governments gave way to military regimes and one-party systems.

III. Democracies have XXXXX in several African countries.
A. Idi Amin of XXXXX was deposed in 1979.
B. Nelson Mandela was elected XXXXX of South Africa in 1994.

IV. The impact of the West has been greater in African cities than in the XXXXX
A. Many rural Africans view African cities as XXXXX and destructive to traditional African values and customs.
B. After independence women were allowed to XXXXX and run for political office.


Vocabulary Define: Pan-Arabism, motive, OPEC, prime, intifada.
People Identify: Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar el-Sadat, Menachem Begin, Yasir Arafat, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Saddam Hussein.

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 2.

1. In 1947, a XXXXX resolution divided Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state.
2. The Jews in Palestine proclaimed the state of XXXXX on May 14, 1948.
3. Arab neighbors saw the new state as a XXXXX of the Palestinian people.
4. The forces of Great Britain, France, and Israel launched a joint attack on Egypt, starting the XXXXX of 1956.
5. In 1967, Abdel Nasser imposed a XXXXX against Israeli shipping through the Gulf of Aqaba.
6. During the XXXXX , Israel tripled the size of its territory.
7. A number of Arab oil-producing states had formed XXXXX in 1960 to gain control over oil prices.
8. During the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, some OPEC nations announced large XXXXX in the price of oil to foreign countries.
9. XXXXX, signed by Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin, ended the state of war between Egypt and Israel.
10. XXXXX believes that only the Palestinian peoples have the right to create a state in Palestine.
11. In 1979, the government of the XXXXX of Iran collapsed and was replaced by an Islamic republic.


Vocabulary Define: Irish Republican Army (IRA), state-sponsored terrorism, al-Qaeda, Taliban, Patriot Act, federal, design.
People Identify: Osama bin Laden, Hamid Karzai, Iyad Allawi.

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 4.

Terrorists try to intimidate states and institutions as a way of advancing their (1) XXX . Some terrorists are militant (2) XXXXXwho want to create their own state or expand national territory. (3) XXXXX is when terrorists work for one nation to undermine the government of another.
As (4) XXXXX became important to the American economy in the 1920s the United States invested in the Middle East oil industry. This industry brought great (5) XXXXX to the ruling families in some Middle Eastern kingdoms, but ordinary citizens remained poor. Some became angry at the United States for supporting the wealthy kingdoms and families.
American support of (6) XXXXX also angered many in the Middle East. In the 1970s, several Middle Eastern nations realized they could fight Israel and the United States by giving terrorists money, weapons, and (7) XXXXX .
When the Afghan fighters succeeded in defeating the Soviet Union, (8) XXXXX became convinced that the superpowers could be beaten. He believed that Western ideas had contaminated (9) XXXXX societies. When the (10) XXXXX took control of Afghanistan in 1996, bin Laden began using the country to train (11) XXXXX recruits.
Directed by bin Laden, a group of terrorists brought about one of the most destructive acts of terrorism against the United States on (12) XXXXX . Following these attacks, President Bush led a (13) XXXXX of nations in launching a war against the Taliban in Afghanistan. American and (14) XXXXX air strikes targeted their command centers, airfields and al-Qaeda hiding places.
On September 12, 2002, President Bush asked the United Nations for a new resolution demanding that Iraq give up (15) XXXXX . The Bush adminis- tration asked the UN a resolution for war, but (16) XXXXX and (17) XXXXX refused. Despite the veto, in March 2003, a U.S.-led coalition attacked Iraq. The invasion ended the dictatorial regime of (18) XXXXX who months later was captured. By December 2003, however, Americans had found no (19) XXXXX of weapons of mass destruction. Establishing a new govern- ment was difficult because of the differences among the three major groups in Iraqi society: (20) XXXXX , (21) XXXXX and (22) XXXXX .


Directions: find this website which happens to have the textbook that you are looking for, only to find that there is no unit 16.

bamboozled again