WWH10.4 Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries: Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philippines.
WH10.4.1 Describe the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and colonialism (e.g., the role played by national security and strategic advantage; moral issues raised by the search for national hegemony, Social Darwinism, and the missionary impulse; material issues such as land, resources, and technology).
WH10.4.3 Explain imperialism from the perspective of the colonizers and the colonized and the varied immediate and long-term responses by the people under colonial rule.
WH10.4.4 Describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions of the world, including the roles of leaders, such as Sun Yat-sen in China, and the roles of ideology and religion.

After a century of Western influence, internal and external forces in China brought down the Qing dynasty and led to civil war. The shogunate opened Japan to the West, only to be overthrown. The Meiji Restoration brought reform and industrialization as well as Japanese imperialism.

Section 1 The Decline of the Qing Dynasty
Rapid population growth, food shortages, peasant unrest, and corruption and incompetence all contributed to the decline of the Qing dynasty. The Empress Dowager Ci Xi ordered the emperor executed and blocked reform efforts. Mounting external pressures only weakened China's ability to address its internal problems. Japan, Russia, and other nations laid claim to Chinese territories. When rebellions in China threatened Western interests, Western nations responded with military force. They also challenged Chinese sovereignty by establishing spheres of influence inside the country. To stabilize relations among the Western nations, the United States declared an Open Door policy. This gave all Western nations equal trading privileges in China.

Section 2 Revolution in China
After the Boxer Rebellion, Empress Dowager Ci Xi embraced some reforms. However, an emerging new elite was impatient with the slow pace of change. Meanwhile, increased taxes led to further unrest in the countryside. A young radical named Sun Yat-sen called for a military takeover and the replacement of the Qing dynasty by Sun's Revolutionary Alliance party as preparation for democratic rule. After the death of the empress, Sun's party launched an uprising and installed a military general as president. However, the old political and social order remained entrenched, and China soon lapsed into civil war. The presence of Europeans in China during the nineteenth century had brought changes to the Chinese economy. Cultural changes followed, particularly in China's cities. China was flooded with Western books, paintings, music, and ideas. Intellectuals often displayed contempt for the Chinese past and advocated a new culture based on the Western model.

Section 3 Rise of Modern Japan
Under military pressure, Japan agreed to establish diplomatic ties with the United States. Similar treaties followed with other Western nations. Samurai warriors responded by forcing the shogun from power. The Meiji Restoration ended the shogunate and restored the emperor as a figurehead. Under a new constitution, most power was in the hands of the executive branch. Meiji reformers transformed land ownership, tax laws, the military, and the education system. Aristocratic privilege was abolished, women gained new rights, and Japanese took jobs in industry. However, industrial working conditions were often deplorable. Pressure increased for an expansion of political rights. Japan, meanwhile, expanded its territory much as the Western industrial nations had done. This led to wars with China and Russia in which Japan took control of Korea and Sakhalin. Relations with the United States were marked by mutual suspicion.

Choose one of the artists,poets,writers,sportsfigures, or film actors mentioned in this chapter and research his or her career. Create and complete a "pro brochure" biography of this person, be sure to emphasize his or her contributions to American culture in the 1920s.
upload the finished file to your wiki (remember there is a 20MB file size limit)

Download the template here
*note if you are using a PC you will have to recreate the template on your own
Remember to use "option+click" to download the file / save early and save often

Pro Brochure.pages


★ BACKGROUND Much of our knowledge of history comes from primary sources: journals, diaries,
and letters written by the people who experienced the events they recorded. Without these sources, it would be difficult to understand how people in other times and cul- tures lived and worked; what they wore, ate, and drank; and how they reacted to the key events of their time and place.

★TASK Imagine that you are a teenager in a Japanese family during the Meiji Restoration.
The Treaty of Kanagawa has been signed with the United States. The government has begun the process of reform and is studying and implementing ideas from Western countries. Write a journal describing the key events in your life through the end of the century. Imagine how different ideas affect your beliefs and way of life.

★ AUDIENCE Your audience of twenty-first-century readers includes students and adults.

★ PURPOSE The purpose of your journal is to give readers an accurate, detailed description of
your life and culture as it changes rapidly. To do so, describe the social, political, economic, scientific, and cultural aspects of your life as a member of Japanese society. (essentially your journal will be one paragraph addressing each of these issues for a total of 5 paragraphs)

1. Research print and online sources to find out more about Japan during this period. Be sure to take accurate, detailed notes (USE EVERNOTE) as you research. Carefully document your sources by writing down the title, author, publisher, date of publication, and page number of all articles, books, and other documents you consult.(MLA DOCUMENTATION IS IMPORTANT)
2. Decide how many entries to include in your journal to give a complete picture of your life and times.
3. Create an outline or other graphic display to organize your material.
4. Write the first draft of your journal. Share your work with a group of classmates
to get feedback and suggestions.
5. Revise and edit your writing, correcting all errors in fact, grammar, mechanics, and usage.
6. Write a final copy and proofread your work.
7. Share your journal with others - the final version should be on your wiki page for Chapter 7

Part #1

The Decline of the Qing Dynasty

Define: decline, extraterritoriality, self-strengthening, spheres of influence, ensure, Open Door policy, indemnity.
Identify: Hong Xiuquan, Guang Xu, Empress Dowager Ci Xi, John Hay.

1. Give one important reason for the abrupt decline and fall of the Qing dynasty.
2. What three things highlighted the growing weakness of the Qing dynasty?
3. Explain what it means that the British had an unfavorable trade balance in China.
4. What did the British trade with China to settle the unfavorable trade balance?
5. When did the Qing dynasty make peace with Britain?
6. What factors led to the Tai Ping Rebellion?
7. What did the Chinese government agree to in the Treaty of Tianjin?
8. What is meant by the term “self-strengthening”?
9. How were spheres of influence created in China?
10. What edicts did Guang Xu issue during the One Hundred Days of Reform?
11. What effect did the American Open Door policy have on the spheres of influence?
12. What prompted the Boxer Rebellion?

Part #2

Revolution in China

Define: provincial, transition, commodity, integrate
Identify: Sun Yat-sen, Henry Pu Yi, General Yuan Shigai.#1 - What were the three stages of reform proposed by Sun Yat-sen?

After the (1) XXXXX Rebellion, Empress Ci Xi embraced a number of reforms in education, administration, and the legal system. Elections for a national (2)
XXXXX were even held in 1910. The emerging elite were angry to discover that elected assemblies could not pass laws but could only give (3)
XXXXX to the ruler.

Sun Yat-sen developed a three-stage reform process that included a (4) XXXXX takeover, a transitional stage before democratic rule, and then finally a constitutional (5)
XXXXX. In 1905 Sun united radical groups from across China; these groups became the (6)
XXXXX. After the Qing dynasty collapsed in 1911, Sun’s party turned to (7)
XXXXX, who controlled the army. With no new political or social order, the events of 1911 were less a revolution than a (8)
XXXXX of the old order. General Yuan dissolved a new parliament, the Nationalists launched a rebellion, and Sun Yat- sen fled to (9)
XXXXX. At the death of General Yuan in 1916, China slipped into (10)

The coming of Westerners to China affected the Chinese economy by introduc- ing modern (11)
XXXXX and (12)
XXXXX, creating an export market and integrating the Chinese market into the nineteenth-century world economy. In this new economy, local industry was largely destroyed, and many of the (13)
XXXXX went to foreign countries rather than back into the Chinese economy. In 1800, daily life for most Chinese was the same as it had been for (14)
XXXXX. A visitor to China 125 years later would have seen many people in the cities who were (15)
XXXXX and wealthy, affected by the growing presence of Western culture. (16)
XXXXX began to introduce Western books, paintings, music, and ideas to China. Western literature and art became popular in China, especially among the (17)

Part #3

Rise of Modern Japan

Define: concession, prefecture, compensate, equip, succession
Identify: Matthew Perry, Millard Fillmore, Mutsuhito, Ito Hirobumi.

I. By 1800, Japan was XXXXX from all contact with the outside world.
A. The first foreign power to succeed with Japan was the XXXXX .
B. Japan agreed to the Treaty of XXXXX , opening ports to Western traders.

II. The decision to open relations with the West was highly XXXXX in parts of Japan.
A. In 1863, the XXXXX was forced to promise to end relations with the West.
B. A Sat-Cho army attacked the palace in Kyoto in 1868 and declared the restoration of the authority of the XXXXX .

III. New leaders transformed Japan into a modern XXXXX nation.

A. Meiji reformers undertook a careful study of XXXXX political systems.
B. Meiji leaders set up a new system of XXXXX .
C. The new army was well equipped and military service was XXXXX.

IV. The Japanese began their XXXXX in 1874.
A. Japan’s navy forced XXXXX to open their ports to Japanese trade.
B. Japan went to war with both XXXXX and XXXXX.
C. The United States was the first to recognize JapaneseXXXXX of Korea.

V. The wave of Western ideas that entered Japan altered Japanese XXXXX .
A. The Japanese were dazzled by European XXXXX .
B. Technical specialists from XXXXX were invited to come to Japan and teach.
C. In 1889, the XXXXX was established.
D. Japanese culture became XXXXX in Europe and North America.