Midi files


WH10.9.2 Analyze the causes of the Cold War, with the free world on one side and Soviet client states on the other, including competition for influence in such places as Egypt, the Congo, Vietnam, and Chile.
WH10.9.3 Understand the importance of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, which established the pattern for America’s postwar policy of supplying economic and military aid to prevent the spread of Communism and the resulting economic and political competition in arenas such as Southeast Asia (i.e., the Korean War, Vietnam War), Cuba, and Africa.
WH10.9.5 Describe the uprisings in Poland (1952), Hungary (1956), and Czechoslovakia (1968) and those countries’ resurgence in the 1970s and 1980s as people in Soviet satellites sought freedom from Soviet control.
WH10.9.8 Discuss the establishment and work of the United Nations and the purposes and functions of the Warsaw Pact, SEATO, NATO, and the Organization of American States.

Chapter Overview
The Cold War came to define international relations and, at times, even domestic politics. Social change produced upheavals in Western societies. Soviet repression relaxed somewhat after Stalin while still containing the pressures for change.

Section 1 Development of the Cold War
The rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States was the focus of the Cold War. The American Marshall Plan tried to make communism less attractive by providing billions of dollars to help rebuild Western Europe. Germany became divided into two states, with a divided city of Berlin inside East Germany. In 1949 Communists took control in China, and the Soviet detonation of an atomic bomb launched a U.S.-Soviet arms race. Soviet and Western alliance systems spanned the globe. The Cuban missile crisis presented the frightening prospect of nuclear war. American policy makers perceived non-Communist South Vietnam as a domino that must not be permitted to fall to communism. Despite the eventual Communist victory, the domino theory proved to be unfounded.

Section 2 The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
After World War II, Stalinist economic policies brought dramatic economic growth, but at a high cost. Most of the growth was in heavy industry. Consumer goods remained hard to find. Stalin's successor, Nikita Khrushchev, condemned Stalinist terror, increased the production of consumer goods, and loosened controls on writers, such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn. Khrushchev's rash decisions, such as the plan to place missiles in Cuba, convinced colleagues to remove him from office in 1964. After World War II, Soviet forces had occupied all of Eastern Europe and part of the Balkans. The occupied states now became Soviet satellites. Yugoslavia was the exception and developed into an independent Communist state. In Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, attempts for reform threatened Soviet domination. In each case, the Soviet Union crushed these reforms by using threats or military force.

Section 3 Western Europe and North America
The 1950s and 1960s were periods of dramatic economic growth in Western Europe. France and Germany both experienced rapid economic recoveries. In Great Britain, dire economic conditions forced Winston Churchill from power. The new Labor government set out to create a modern welfare state and began to dismantle the British Empire. The formation of the European Economic Community created a powerful new trading bloc. Canada emerged as an industrial economy. In the United States, the New Deal had brought a long-term increase in the power of the federal government. Prosperity and Cold War suspicions defined the United States in the 1950s. Civil rights and the expansion of the New Deal were crucial issues of the 1960s. Students protested U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Simultaneously, a variety of issues sparked student revolts in Europe. Women began to rebel against inequalities between the sexes.


Vocabulary Define: aid, satellite state, policy of containment, occupy, creation, arms race, deterrence, administration, communications, domino theory.
People and Events Identify: Truman Doctrine, Dean Acheson, Marshall Plan, NATO, Warsaw Pact, SEATO, CENTO, Nikita Khrushchev.

DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions as you read Section 1.

1. How did Stalin and the capitalist West regard each other after World War II?
2. What did the United States and Great Britain believe should happen with the liberated nations of Eastern Europe?
3. After freeing Eastern Europe from the Nazis, what course of action did the Soviet army follow?
4. What was the Truman Doctrine?
5. Describe the program known as the Marshall Plan.
6. What two events in 1949 caused great fear in the United States?
7. What did the member nations of NATO agree to do?
8. How did the Korean War begin in 1950?
9. What organization was formed to stem Soviet aggression in the East?
10. How did Nikita Khrushchev seek to stop the flow of refugees out of East Germany to West Berlin?
11. Name the event in 1962 that brought the world close to nuclear war.
12. What was the “domino theory”?


Vocabulary Define: heavy industry, conform, de-Stalinization, symbol.
People Identify: Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Tito, Imre Nagy, Alexander Dubcˇek.

DIRECTIONS: Complete the outline below as you read Section 2.

I. XXXXX remained the undisputed XXXXX of the Soviet Union after World War II.
A. By 1950, Russian XXXXX production had surpassed pre-war levels.
B. The Soviet people were XXXXX with few consumer goods.
C. Stalin’s suspicions added to the increasing XXXXX of his regime.

II. Nikita Khrushchev emerged as chief Soviet XXXXX .
A. Khrushchev condemned Stalin for his XXXXX , XXXXX , and XXXXX.

B. Government controls on XXXXX works were loosened.
C. Failed XXXXX policies along with increased XXXXX spending hurt the economy.

III. By the end of the war, Soviet XXXXX occupied most of Eastern Europe.

A. The Eastern European satellite states followed XXXXX example.
B. Communism did not develop deep XXXXX among the people of Eastern Europe.
C. The Soviet Union made it clear that no satellite states would become XXXXX of Soviet control.
1. In spite of reforms in 1956, Poland pledged to remain loyal to the XXXXX
. 2. As Hungary declared itself a XXXXX in 1956, the Soviet Army attacked Budapest.
3. Alexander Dubc ̆ek in Czechoslovakia hoped to create XXXXX .
4. The Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in August 1968 and crushed the XXXXX movement.


Vocabulary Define: welfare state, role, bloc, real wages, civil rights movement, consumer society, women’s liberation movement, publish.
People and Events Identify: Charles de Gaulle, European Economic Community, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Jr., Simone de Beauvoir.

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 3.

1. By 1950, XXXXX output in Europe was 30 percent above prewar levels.
2. This XXXXX recovery continued well into the 1950s and 1960s.
3. One man—the war hero XXXXX , dominated the history of France for nearly a quarter of a century after the war.
4. Under XXXXX , West Germany experienced an “economic miracle.”
5. An economic XXXXX in the mid-1960s opened the door to the Social Democratic Party.
6. Under Clement Attlee, the new Prime Minister, the British Labour government set out
to create a modern XXXXX .
7. In 1957, six Western European countries signed the Rome Treaty and created the XXXXX
8. The ideals of Franklin Roosevelt’s XXXXX largely determined the patterns of American domestic politics.
9. Cold War struggles abroad led to the widespread fear that Communists had XXXXX the United States.
10. Thousands of American soldiers were sent to XXXXX to fight and die in a war against Communist aggression.
11. The civil rights movement had its beginnings in 1954, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that racial XXXXX in public schools was illegal.
12. With Richard Nixon’s election in 1968, a shift to the political XXXXX in American politics began.